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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/13066

Title: 以運銷價差及市場力量評估產銷履歷制度之潛在經濟效益-以台灣養殖吳郭魚為例
Use Market Margins and Market Power to Evaluate Potential Economic Benefits of Traceability on Aquaculture Tilapia in Taiwan
Authors: Wun -Ji Jiang
江文基
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics
國立臺灣海洋大學:應用經濟研究所
Keywords: 運銷價差;市場結構;市場力量;產銷履歷;經濟剩餘模型;經濟效益
market margins;market structure;market power;traceability;economic surplus model;economic benefits
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T07:09:44Z
Abstract: 由於全球化貿易和國際標準認證的欠缺,使得水產品的來源以及產地不容易辨認,這些問題在歐洲被高度關注,也讓產銷履歷制度再次受到重視 (Thompson et al., 2005)。雖然產銷履歷制度能夠解決水產品的來源以及產地問題,但事實上,實行產銷履歷有可能影響到國內消費者的購買意願,購買意願的高低會影響到國內消費者剩餘的變動;產銷履歷所需花費的成本亦有可能影響到國內生產者的生產意願,生產意願的高低會影響到國內生產者者剩餘的變動。有鑑於此,本研究以台灣養殖吳郭魚為例,首先建立台灣養殖吳郭魚供需函數,得到國內養殖吳郭魚的供需彈性,接著利用供需彈性分別建立運銷價差模型與小型開放經濟體系之下的經濟剩餘模型。在運銷價差模型方面主要分析零售商之邊際成本、寡賣力量、寡買力量與零售價格風險對於運銷價差的影響。在小型開放經濟體系之下的經濟剩餘模型方面,本研究假設兩種狀況,第一種狀況是水產品無論「有沒有產銷履歷認證皆可以出口」,例如美國、沙烏地阿拉伯等國;第二種狀況是水產品「無產銷履歷認證不可出口,有產銷履歷認證後才可出口」,例如歐盟等國,接著進行不同狀況之下的經濟效益分析,藉此評估台灣實行產銷履歷的可行性。 市場結構分析實證結果顯示,台灣吳郭魚市場為不完全競爭市場。運銷價差平均值為11.44288元/公斤,邊際成本平均值為1.13290元/公斤,佔當期價差比例為9.90051%;寡賣力量平均值為6.67176元/公斤,佔當期價差比例為58.30488%;寡買力量平均值為3.86462元/公斤,佔當期價差比例為33.77314%;零售價格風險平均值為-2.31588元/公斤,佔當期價差比例為-20.23596%。 台灣養殖吳郭魚產銷履歷之經濟效益分析結果顯示,在狀況一「有無產銷履歷皆可出口」之模式1-3「有產銷履歷後國內供給下降但需求上升」下,最大國內總福利為129794千元,上升比例為1999年至2007年國內吳郭魚消費金額88.06%;最小國內總福利為-7806千元,下降比例為1999年至2007年國內吳郭魚消費金額-5.30%。在狀況二「無產銷履歷不可出口,有產銷履歷才可出口」之模式2-4「有產銷履歷後國內供給下降但需求上升」下,最大國內總福利為22128千元,上升比例為1999年至2007年國內吳郭魚消費金額66.17%;最小國內總福利為-3890千元,下降比例為1999年至2007年國內吳郭魚消費金額-11.63%。 關鍵字:運銷價差、市場結構、市場力量、產銷履歷、經濟剩餘模型、經濟效益、養殖吳郭魚
Globalization of trade and the lack of international standards have made identifying the country of origin and the history of aquaculture products difficult. These concerns have recently been heightened in Europe that have made traceability a prominent topic (Thompson et al., 2005). In fact, traceability can solve the problem of the origin and history, but it may affect willing to buy and consumer surplus on domestic consumer; the cost may also affect willing to produce and producer surplus on domestic producer. Therefore, this research select aquaculture Tilapia as an example to establish demand and supply function to obtain demand and supply elasticity, then build up market margins model and economic surplus model by these two elasticity. In the market margins model, we mainly measure the influence of retailer’s marginal cost, oligopoly power, oligopsony power, and retail price risk to market margins. In the economic surplus model, we suppose that aquaculture Tilapia will face two situations, the first one is “all Tilapia can export, no matter have certification of traceability or not”, such as American and Saudi Arabia; the other one is “Tilapia can’t export unless it has certification of traceability”, such as European Union. We analyze economic benefits in different situation to evaluate the feasibility to execute traceability in Taiwan. The result of market structure shows that Taiwan Tilapia market is non-competitive. The average value of market margins is 11.44288 NT dollars per kilogram. The average marginal cost is 1.13290 NT dollars per kilogram, which accounts for 9.90051% market margin. The average oligopoly power is 6.67176 NT dollars per kilogram, which accounts for 58.30488% market margin. The average oligopsony power is 3.86462 NT dollars per kilogram, which accounts for 33.77314% market margin. The average retail price risk is -2.31588 NT dollars per kilogram, which accounts for -20.23596% market margins. The result of economic benefit of traceability in Taiwan aquaculture Tilapia shows that the maximum total benefits, under the first situation “all Tilapia can export no matter have certification of traceability or not” and 1-3 model “Internal supply is decreasing; demand is increasing when there is certification of traceability”, equal to 129794 NT thousand dollars, which account for 88.06% the amount of average consumption value of internal Tilapia in 1999 to 2007; the minimum total benefits equal to -7806 NT thousand dollars, which account for -5.30% the average amount of consumption value of internal Tilapia in 1999 to 2007. The maximum total benefits, under the second situation “Tilapia can’t export unless it has certification of traceability” and 2-4 model “Internal supply is decreasing; demand is increasing when there is certification of traceability”, equal to 22128 NT thousand dollars, which account for 66.17% the amount of average consumption value of internal Tilapia in 1999 to 2007; the minimum total benefits equal to -3890 NT thousand dollars, which account for -11.63% the amount of average consumption value of internal Tilapia in 1999 to 2007. Key words: market margins, market structure, market power, traceability, economic surplus model, economic benefits, aquaculture Tilapia
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M96350013
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/13066
Appears in Collections:[應用經濟研究所] 博碩士論文

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