|Abstract: ||2005年ICCAT年會日本強烈串連其他會員國對台灣實施貿易制裁，也因此做出前所未有衝擊台灣鮪釣漁業的ICCAT 05-02號決議，施以高達70%之懲罰性配額削減，影響產值約 達25億新台幣。因此，台灣漁業行政部門在2006年加強管理的強度，終於在2006年ICCAT年會受到委員會各國肯定，並以ICCAT 06-01號決議取代05-02號決議，恢復台灣大目鮪配額到2004年14,900公噸的水準。 本研究首先回顧2004至2006年間ICCAT對台灣鮪釣漁業管理之相關決議文及分析其對台灣漁業行政部門與鮪釣漁業造成的影響，最後並對政府的管理措施，經深度訪談鮪魚公會三大洋營委會主委及資深業者，提出對政府的建議與對產業未來的期望。 三大洋營委會主委一致指出現行三大洋作業規範應合理修正，包括打破各洋區作業漁區的限制，配額轉讓制度應合理且讓業者可以自由運用。 本研究調查2006年大西洋台灣鮪釣業者所面對的續留大目鮪作業組、轉長鰭鮪作業組、休漁組、及減船組等四組經營類別為例研究其成本效益，以續留大目鮪組相對有利。但若無其他三組的配合，也難以達到ICCAT 05-02號決議的要求，讓國際漁業管理組織重新肯定我國的管理能力。 但管理絕非只是減船即可解決所有問題。本研究除對漁業行政部門的部分管理措施予以檢討之外，並提出具體可行的三點建議，以促使經濟效益的最大化，亦即將國家整體船隊與鮪類配額合理利用，使產業具國際競爭力，分別是：(1) 採行ITQ制度，避免齊頭式平等的配額分配，並修正諸多不合理且窒礙難行的三大洋作業規範，使業者能靈活運用配額；(2) 建立在OPRT架構下之船隊輸出入機制，配合修改「漁船輸出許可準則」與「漁船建造許可及漁業證照核發準則」，來達成調整船隊規模的目的；及(3) 協助業者在區域性漁業管理組織會員國合法當地化，一方面縮小台灣鮪釣船隊規模並合理利用其配額；另一方面也可扶持當地國，開展務實外交。惟政府應審慎制訂「國人投資經營非中華民國籍漁船管理條例」，以免抑制合法投資。|
At the annual meeting of ICCAT 2005, Japan strongly urged other member countries to enforce a trade sanction against Taiwan, and the resolution #ICCAT05-02 impacting Taiwan tuna fishing industry was therefore made with a punitive decrease in quota as high as 70% affecting about 2.5 billion NT dollars in output value. Subsequently, the strength of enforcement and management in response to this made by Taiwan fishery regulatory authority was finally accepted by all member countries, and the resolution #ICCAT05-02 was replaced by #ICCAT06-01, in which the quota of Taiwan for bigeye tuna was returned to the level of 14,900 tons in 2004. This study first reviews the contents of resolutions of ICCAT relating to Taiwan tuna fishing industry management from 2004 to 2006, then analyzes their impacts on Taiwan fishery regulatory authority and tuna fishing industry. Finally, in-depth interviews are conducted with the commissioners and senior members of the Operating Commissions for Three Oceans of Taiwan Tuna Association on the regulatory measures of the government, so as to provide our suggestions to the government and our future expectations for the industry. All commissioners of the Operating Commissions for Three Oceans unanimously indicated that the existing operation regulations for three oceans should be reasonably amended, including the removal of the restriction on fishing areas and reasonably allowing the enterprises to transfer freely their allocated quota. This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of the four groups of operations that Atlantic tuna fishing enterprises of Taiwan faced in 2006 – the group continuing fishing for Bigeye tuna, the group switching to albacore fishing, the group suspending fishing, and the group reducing number of vessles. The study found the group continuing fishing for Bigeye tuna is relatively more favorable. However, without the coordination of the other three groups, it is difficult to meet the requirements of the resolution #ICCAT05-02, allowing the international organization to reevaluate the management ability of our government. Nevertheless, all problems can not be resolved by reducing the number of vessls only. Besides reviewing some regulatory measures of the fishery authority, this study also makes three concrete and feasible recommendations to maximize economic benefit, i.e., to reasonably utilize all fleets and tuna quotas of our country so as to increase the international competitiveness of the industry, as follows: 1) Adopt ITQ system, avoid symmetrical equality, and amend unreasonable and impractical operation regulations for three oceans, so that the enterprises can flexibly utilize the quota; 2) Set up fleet import/export mechanism under OPRT framework, and amend fishing ship import/export rules, in order to reduce the size of fleet; and 3) Assist enterprises to be legally localized in member countries of district international organization, so that not only the size of Taiwan’s tuna fishing fleet can be reduced, they can also help the target country and reasonably utilize their quota. Nevertheless, the government should carefully enact "Regulations Governing Investment in Non-ROC Fishing Vessels by Nationals" to avoid the suppressing legal investment.