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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/13007

Title: 台灣鯛養殖場生產技術效率分析--隨機性邊界生產函數之應用
Technical Efficiency Analysis of Taiwan Tilapia Farms -- An Application of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function
Authors: Chi-Ting Chuang
莊琦婷
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics
國立臺灣海洋大學:應用經濟研究所
Keywords: 台灣鯛;隨機性邊界生產函數;技術效率
Taiwan Tilapia;Stochastic Frontier Production Function;Technical Efficiency
Date: 2005
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T07:09:30Z
Abstract: 台灣鯛為台灣養殖漁產品的最大宗,同時亦為台灣養殖漁業所有魚種中,外銷數量排名第一的魚種,因其出口實績與具有高度的國際競爭力,故在2004年時被農委會列為外銷四大旗艦產品之唯一漁產品,因此可知台灣鯛在台灣養殖業的重要地位。台灣鯛外銷主要輸出美國、沙烏地阿拉伯、韓國及加拿大等地,但自1998年中國大陸開始外銷吳郭魚至美國後,2000年起中國大陸每年的出口量漸漸超過台灣,取代台灣成為美國吳郭魚最大的供應國,使得台灣鯛在美國市場空間備受壓縮。加上近年來東南亞地區挾帶著低成本的優勢,亦使台灣鯛在外銷市場上面臨競爭與衝擊。面對目前的產業困境,如何在既有養殖技術之下增加要素資源的使用效率,以提升台灣鯛的競爭力為本研究主要目的。 2004年漁業年報顯示出雲嘉南地區台灣鯛產量約76,200公噸,佔全台灣台灣鯛產量約85.23%,為台灣鯛生產之主要縣市。在台灣鯛協會協助之下,本研究利用該協會所輔導之雲嘉南台灣鯛養殖場的記帳資料進行分析,資料期間為2004年1月至2004年12月,共計80戶有效樣本。生產工作日誌乃是由養殖戶每日進行記錄,可以實際暸解整個養殖過程中詳細收支,且最終所使用資料係以日資料進行累加,相較於漁家經濟調查之年度資料,精準度與詳細程度應較為高,由本研究調查資料顯示在養殖過程中所有相關投入,漁家經濟調查皆有低估情形。此外輔導之養殖戶能提供較完整之資料,有缺漏資料或是出現矛盾資料皆可立即進行查證;而研究對象主要為台灣鯛專業養殖戶,因此對於如何提升台灣鯛競爭力,更可以提供明確且完善的建議。 本研究應用Battese and Coelli (1995)所提出之隨機性生產邊界函數與技術無效率模型來衡量台灣鯛養殖之生產技術效率,為避免實證結果偏誤,本研究將針對67家單養養殖戶進行實證結果分析,就所估計出之生產效率結果,做為改善養殖戶生產效率之依據。實證分析結果顯示以概似比檢定得知以Translog隨機性邊界生產函數模型配適度較佳,規模報酬為0.52,呈現規模報酬遞減。技術效率值在0.7以上之養殖戶有64.18%,且發現人為技術無效率誤差佔總誤差比例為80%,表示台灣鯛養殖樣本戶之間技術無效率差異有80%係來自於人為技術效率誤差所導致;其中地區別、養殖規模、養殖經驗與教育程度皆顯著地影響技術效率。 由於台灣鯛養殖現階段呈現規模報酬遞減之現象,在生產過程中已有過度投入現象,產量無法隨著投入增加而等比例增加,因此養殖業者應著手於技術效率之改進,實證結果顯示養殖經驗與教育程度愈高者其生產技術效率亦愈高,參加講習對於目前台灣鯛養殖產業則無顯著影響,可能原因為講習課程對於養殖經驗與教育程度愈高者效果較為明顯。為了學習新技術、獲得更多專業技能來提昇養殖場效率,進而增加產業競爭力,本研究建議漁政單位應繼續支持台灣鯛協會辦理相關養殖講習課程,除相關養殖講習課程更應舉辦養殖經濟相關研討會,利用本研究結果來建議養殖戶在養殖過程中應如何避免過度投資與經驗或教育程度不足所導致之無效率,而進一步增加養殖場生產效率。此外透過無效率邊界模型為台灣鯛養殖場進行檢測,推估出個別養殖戶之效率值,可建立一養殖場評比機制,較高效率之養殖場可作為效率較低之養殖場觀摩與交流對象,進而提升台灣鯛產業競爭力。
Tilapia has been one of the major aquaculture products and important exported fishery products in Taiwan. Tilapia ranks as the top quality among the aquaculture products in Taiwan. Taiwan tilapia is the only fishery product among the four major exported products selected by the Council of Agriculture, Taiwan in 2004. Taiwan tilapia is primarily exported to the United States, Saudi Arabia, Korea, and Canada. But since 2000, exports of tilapia from China to the United States have surpassed Taiwan and become America’s leading supplier of tilapia; consequently, the dominant position of Taiwan tilapia in the U.S. has been challenged. In addition, Taiwan tilapia's international market has been challenged and impacted by the low-cost production in Southeast Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to examine how to identify the factors that influence the competitiveness of Taiwan tilapia and ways to utilize essential resources more efficiently with existing aquaculture techniques in the current industry predicament. The 2004 fisheries statistic yearbook showed that Yunlin-Chiayi -Tainan area produced 76,200 tons and accounted for 85.23% of the total tilapia production in Taiwan. With the help of Taiwan Tilapia Alliance, the daily accounting data of 80 tilapia aquafarms in Yunlin-Chiayi-Tainan area for the period between January and December of 2004 were made available to this study. The daily work logs provides a more detail and accurate information of farming activity in a year than the annual economic surveys which may underestimate the total expense. Moreover, these 80 aquafarms offer more detailed data, allowing instant verification of missing or contradictory entries. This study applies stochastic frontier production function and technical inefficiency modeling of Battese and Coelli (1995) on measuring production efficiency on monoculture tilapia farms in Taiwan. How to improve production efficiency of aquatic farmers will be in accordance with the estimated result of production efficiency. The result shows that goodness of fit of Translog stochastic frontier production function modelling is high, with returns to scale of 0.52, a decreasing return to scale, based on the likelihood ratio test. There are 64.18% aquatic farmers shows their technical efficiency value is above 0.70 and the ratio of the variance of the technical inefficiency with respect to the total variance is 80%, indicating that 80% of the technical inefficiency of the tilapia aquatic farmers could be explained by the inefficiency factors, such as region, cultivation scale, farming experience, and level of education. The finding of decreasing returns to scale in the current tilapia farming in Taiwan indicates there are over-investment phenomenon in farming process and output cannot be increased with more investments; therefore, aquatic farmers should focus on avoid technical inefficiency. Results show that aquatic farmers who have more cultivation experience and higher level of education also show higher efficiency, attending more aquaculture technique seminars had no significant influence on technical efficiency in the Taiwan tilapia industry. Maybe only those farmers who have experience and education will benefit from seminars. In order to learn new techniques, to acquire new expertise, to improve the efficiency of aquafarms, and to increase the competitiveness of the tilapia industry, this study suggests that the fishery authority could support Taiwan Tilapia Alliance to holding aquaculture economic diagnosis seminars to utilize the result from this study to advise aquatic farmers how to increase production efficiency by to avoid over investment and to avoid inefficiency caused by deficiency of cultivation experience and lake of years in education. In addition, the aquafarms shows the highest efficiency could as the serve model for the other aquafarms with lower efficiency to improve competitiveness of the Taiwan tilapia industry.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M93350022
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/13007
Appears in Collections:[應用經濟研究所] 博碩士論文

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