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An Analysis of Taiwan and U.S. Consumers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Foods
|Authors: ||Pei-Chun Yang|
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics|
genetically modified organisms;multinomial logit model;survival models
|Issue Date: ||2011-06-30T07:09:29Z
|Abstract: ||摘 要 美國是種植基因改造(Genetically Modified, GM)作物的主要國家，也是台灣此類產品進口的主要來源國，根據2005年美國農業部的調查估計資料，美國所生產的玉米與大豆分別有52%和87%是GM作物；台灣2005年玉米與大豆的進口量分別約有95.57%和71.92%來自美國。目前世界衛生組織(World Health Organization)僅能確認在國際市場販售的基因改造食品對人體健康「沒有立即的危險」，惟社會大眾是否對於GM作物安全性存有疑慮，消費者對GM食品認知與接受度，及其願付價值則為本研究所要探討的主題。 本研究主要以台灣與美國消費者為對象，美國消費者資料係由陳文雄在2003年5月17日至7月2日針對美國地區(除了阿拉斯加和夏威夷)進行隨機抽樣電話訪問調查，獲得1,014戶；台灣消費者資料由江福松所主持的國科會計畫委託中研院調查中心在2003年8月27日至10月3日針對台灣地區進行隨機抽樣調查，獲得1,004戶。台灣的問卷係就美國的電訪問卷加以修改，美國問卷中以大豆沙拉油、玉米脆片與鮭魚三項產品為主，而台灣依國情的不同將玉米脆片改為豆腐，因此本研究比較兩國問卷中大豆沙拉油與鮭魚兩項產品的認知及願付價值。 台灣與美國問卷皆採用雙界二分選擇模型，所以本研究利用存活模型與多項Logit模型，進行實證估計其願付價值。實證結果顯示，美國在MNL與存活模型估計之結果，兩項產品其願付價值差異不大，但是，台灣在兩個模型中，願付價值卻明顯表示出不同的偏好，其主要原因在於台灣在MNL模型中，其價格係數呈現顯著正相關，違反效用原則，導致推估其願付價值出現誤差，由此可知存活模型的結果較具合理性。此外由存活模型實證結果得知，兩國消費者對於Non-GM大豆沙拉油與Non-GM Feed鮭魚願付價值相近，分別約為GM大豆沙拉油價格的1.4~1.44倍與GM Feed鮭魚價格的1.23~1.26倍。|
Abstract The United States is a major country that produces genetically modified (GM) crops and is also the main source of Taiwanese imports of the GM products. According to a 2005 survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 52% of corns and 87% of soybeans produced in the U.S. were GM crops. In 2005, 95.57% and 71.92%, respectively; of total Taiwan's corn and soybean imports were originated from the U.S. The World Health Organization has pointed out that GM foods sold in international markets posed no immediate danger to human health; however, doubts on the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remain. This study addresses the issues of consumers' understanding and acceptance of the genetically modified foods (GMF) as well as their willingness to pay (WTP) for GMF. This study focuses on Taiwan and U.S. consumers. The data on U.S. consumers consist of 1,014 households and were obtained from a questionnaire survey conducted by Chern using random samples in the 48 contiguous states collected from May 17 through July 2 of 2003. The data on Taiwan consumers consist of 1,004 households and were obtained by Chiang from telephone surveys using a modified Chern's questionnaire during the period from August 27 through October 3 of 2003. The U.S. survey pertained to three products: vegetable oils, cornflakes and salmons. Because of the taste differences in food consumption, cornflakes were replaced by tofu in the Taiwan questionnaire. As a result, comparison between the U.S. and Taiwan consumers' understanding and willingness to pay can only be made on vegetable oils and salmons. Because the answers to the questions asked in the survey are binary in nature, this study uses multinomial logit and survival models to estimate the willingness to pay for GMF alternatives. From the analysis of willingness to pay and survival model, this study finds that Taiwan and U.S. consumers are similar in their willingness to pay to avoid the GMF. Using the multinomial logit model, this study finds that Taiwan consumers do not reject GMF. The main reason for this finding is that Taiwan consumers tend to lack understandings of GMF or GMOs. They believe genetically modified foods are hi-tech products. However, U.S. consumers have better understandings of GMF or GMOs and generally prefer Non-GM foods. To reduce Taiwan consumers' misperception of GMF as hi-tech products, Taiwanese authorities should continue to promote the biotechnology knowledge.
|Appears in Collections:||[應用經濟研究所] 博碩士論文|
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