|Abstract: ||白蝦是全世界養殖蝦類產量最高的三大種類(草蝦、白蝦及中國對蝦)之一，依FAO統計，民國90-92年，世界養殖蝦類產量中，在草蝦逐年減量之際，白蝦有增產之趨勢；在台灣，白蝦養殖是一新興產業，據漁業年報統計，民國89- 92年，亦有上述之情形，即養殖面積與產量，白蝦年年增加，而草蝦卻逐年減少。有鑒於此，對於此一新興白蝦養殖業，就得先瞭解白蝦的生產成本結構、獲利性及能接受的最低價格界限，才能進一步做其他的分析預測。 本研究以民國88-92年台灣地區沿近海與養殖漁家經濟調查報告資料，選定「工資」、「飼料費」、「水電費」及「種苗費」等進行成本收益分析，並經Cobb-Douglas成本函數分析證實「飼料費」對經營成本的影響最大。另以民國92年為例，計算出白蝦養殖之臨界價格每公斤156.34元，年平均售價189.8元，比臨界價格高21.40%，顯示尚有生產利潤；臨界產量每公頃5,139公斤，與年平均產量6,239公斤比較，已超出臨界產量，表示養殖技術應該沒有問題；白蝦經營安全率17.63%，表示產業安全性尚可。 本研究發現白蝦價格不穩定的原因主要來自「產量」的季節變動，加上產地價格決定權由販運商掌控，使得運銷價差偏高，養殖業者與消費者的權益因而受損，為維護生產者與消費者之利益，運銷效率有待改善。|
Pacific White Shrimp is one of the three major species (i.e., Giant tiger prawn, Pacific white shrimp, and Fleshy prawn) in terms of world aquaculture production. According to the fishery statistics of Food Agriculture Organization, during 2001-2003, while the production of the giant tiger prawn has been decreasing, the production of Pacific white shrimp has been rising from year to year. The aquaculture of Pacific white shrimp in Taiwan has been a newly developed industry. The 2000-2003 Fisheries Statistical Yearbook of Taiwan, Kinmen and Matsu Area shows that, in terms of cultured area and production, the Pacific white shrimp went up, but the giant tiger prawn fell year after year. In order to understand this situation, it is necessary to study the cost structure and the profitability of the Pacific white shrimp industry as well as the lowest bound (critical) price the industry can take. Using the data in the Reports on the Economic Investigation of the Coast, Offshore, and Aquaculture Fisheries in Taiwan in 2001-2003, this thesis selected the items such as wage, feed, water-electricity, and seed to analyze the operating cost. A Cobb-Douglas cost function was estimated and the empirical result showed that the feed expense was the most important part of total operation cost in the white shrimp industry. Taking 2003 as an example, the actual (average) price was NT$189.8 per kg, 21.40% higher than the estimated critical price of NT$156.34 per kg, showing that the industry had made a small profit. The average annual production of 6,239 kg per hectare exceeded the critical production of 5,139 kg per hectare, suggesting that there is no problem in aquaculture techniques. The security of running the White Shrimp aquaculture was accepted with a security ratio of 17.63%。 The price instability of the White Shrimp is mainly caused by the seasonal fluctuation in production as well as the ability of the jobbers in controlling price to make a bigger marketing margin. This resulted in the loss of benefits of producers and consumers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve marketing efficiency for the sake of protecting the benefits of producers and consumers.