|Abstract: ||在小農(漁)制的國家裡，為保障農漁民及消費者權益，在農漁產運銷制度中多設有批發市場，以集散均衡農漁產品，期能形成合理價格與平穩魚價；因此，魚貨批發市場獲得產銷雙方、政府、消費大眾所肯定，其存在有其必要性。而在面對消費者時代及交通便捷，以及資訊科技、物流技術快速發展等所帶來的漁產運銷結構性改變，已衝擊臺灣魚貨批發市場之營運與發展呈衰退趨勢，正面臨存續或轉型之關鍵時刻。因此臺灣魚市場產業的未來發展方向、產銷雙方與社會大眾對魚貨批發市場的需求度、及未來產業的定位與貢獻等方面的探討，是為本論文之研究課題。 本研究蒐集國內外魚市場產業發展概況之次級資料，以瞭解批發市場發達的日本、南韓等國之魚市場產業發展趨勢，及發展策略與措施，作為臺灣魚市場發展策略之參考外；並藉由產業分析及策略規劃等理論工具，找出魚市場核心優勢及產業願景、定位，研擬合宜發展策略。另為瞭解產業內相關人員對魚市場發展趨勢之認知與策略之建議，對魚市場管理及經營者與幹部及員工，進行問卷調查及實地訪查。 本研究發現臺灣魚貨批發市場有面臨多元化通路衝擊、需求少量多樣、著重品質及衛生安全、零售及生產端大型化等趨勢，及市場設置不當且零散、組織僵化難以因應環境變化、經營保守被動、法令配套不足及產業衰退、老年化等困難。而歸納魚市場特色與優勢有，受法令保障與限制產業內幾無競爭及具政策支助與需要優勢、豐富的漁產品知識、及先占優勢等。 為使魚市場永續發展，魚市場產業發展願景為「產銷雙方的好伙伴」、「政府施政的好幫手」、「健康食魚的好推手」，本論文提出下列策略上的建議：(1)魚市場特有策略，包括專注魚市場使命，強化核心功能、發展魚市場知識經濟、導入企業化經營、及因應災害支助生活等策略；(2)對中大型魚市場，採取穩定市場之成本領導策略，及以多角化發展維持利潤之差異化策略，以及深耕本業提高業績之集中化策略等；及(3)對小型不具資源市場，採取消除浪費之成本防禦策略，及客製化服務之差異化策略，以及固守本業與合併、重整、退出策略等。此外，本論文亦建議：(1)以生活圈為規劃設置魚市場；(2)制訂獎勵魚市場合併或轉型特別條例；及(3)政府宜放寬法令及備妥相關產業配套條件，並與業界共同推動標準化、規格化、條碼化等三化基礎工作。|
To those small farming (fishing) countries, the wholesale markets play an important role of securing farmers’ rights and interests. The wholesale markets set reasonable and stable prices by distributing the agricultural and fisheries products. Thus, the wholesale markets are necessary and important for producers, distributers, consumers and government. Facing the trends of the convenient transportation, advanced information technology, and rapidly developed technology of distribution, the structure of fishery marketing system has changed dramatically in the last decade. Certainly, these changes bring great impacts on the development of the wholesale fish markets in Taiwan. This study analyzed the developments of fisheries markets in Taiwan, the demand changes of the distributers and consumers, the market positioning of the wholesale fish markets as well as their contributions in the fihsey sector in Taiwan. In this study, the secondary data about the development of fishery market industry in Taiwan and other countries were collected. The trends and policies of the fishery market industry in both Japan and Korea were described and used to develop tactics for Taiwan fishery markets. By applying the theories of industry analysis and strategy planning, this study identified the advantages, goals and position of Taiwan fishery markets. In addition, this study provided feasible development strategies to the future fishery markets in the future. In order to understand the knowledge of related personnels to the industrial trends and to collect their suggestions to the development strategy, a questionnaire survey and field observations were conducted. The respondents consisted of the managers and staffs in all fisheries markets in Taiwan. Several problems in the current Taiwan’s wholesale fish market were identified, such as the impact of diversified routes, the small amount of demand and various need, high requests for quality, sanitation and safety, large-sized retail and production, unsuitable location of markets, rigid organization, conservative and passive management skills, inadequate policy, declining industry, and aging of population. In the other hand, there are some predominance and distinguishing features of fisheries markets in Taiwan, such as no competition with others under protection by law, supported by governmental policy, indispensable demand, abundant knowledge of aquatic products, and the predominance of possession. In order to have a sustainable development of fishery markets in the future, the industry should become good partners among producers and distributers, a good helper to help the government to execute policy, and a promoter for promoting healthy seafoods. Therefore, three main strategies were proposed here: 1) specialized strategies must be developed for the fisheries markets, including the focus on the mission, strengthening on the core function, development of the knowledge economics for fishery markets, importing the business administration, and assistance to the fishery sector after natural disaster; 2) for median to large fishery markets, to stabilize market cost, to maintain the benefit under the multiple development, and to improve accomplishment; and 3) for small fishery markets without any resource, to have the strategies to decrease cost, to develop specialized service, and to include the methods of combination, comeback and withdrawal. Furthermore, three suggestions were also made from the study: 1) the location of fishery market should be planned basing on the size of living areas; 2) to legislate the regulations to reward the combination and changes of fishery markets; and 3) the government needs to work with industry to achieve three basic efforts, e.g., standardization, normalization, and bar coded.