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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/12944

Title: 取消漁業用油優惠及獎勵休漁政策對台灣漁業之影響評估
The Impact of Elimination of the Fishery Fuel Tax Exemption and Suspension of Fishing Activities Program on Taiwan's Fishing Industry
Authors: Yu-Fang Chuang;Fu-Sung Chiang
莊煜芳;江福松
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics
國立臺灣海洋大學:應用經濟研究所
Keywords: 漁業用油優惠;自願性休漁;漁業部門部份均衡模型;指定性休漁
Fishery Fuel Tax Exemption;Suspending Fishing Activities;Fisheries Sector Partial Equilibrium Model;Mandatory Closed Fishing Season
Date: 2003
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T07:09:20Z
Abstract: 台灣於2002年加入世界貿易組織(WTO)後,未來有關貿易與產品之交易將在其架構下運行。台灣實施數十餘年的漁業用油優惠政策受「補貼暨平衡措施協定」規範,為避免漁業用油優惠招致國際控訴影響國家整體利益並維護海洋資源永續利用,遂採取分階段調降漁業用油優惠標準及實施獎勵性休漁政策。此舉將使過去一直受國內政府保護的漁業部門面臨重大的挑戰,特別是漁業用油優惠之取消將使得漁撈作業成本大幅增加。 為瞭解自願性休漁獎勵金對漁民是否存有誘因,本研究進行自願性休漁獎勵金與平均每艘工資成本之核算,並估算自願性休漁獎勵金支付平均每艘工資成本之天數,估算結果顯示若將政府所給予之獎勵金額用以支付漁民平均工資成本,相當於僅夠支應0-10噸、10-50噸及50-100噸漁船18天、3天及2天的工資成本。對漁民而言,參加休漁不能出海作業除漁獲收益的直接損失外,船主尚須負擔船員的工資成本,在休漁獎勵金低誘因之下顯見漁民參與休漁意願當亦偏低。 本研究以數學規劃為研究方法,參酌孫金華、張靜貞及江福松(1999)建構之台灣漁業部門均衡模型,並以2002年資料更新分析上述政策效果。依據「九十一年九月一日至九十二年八月三十一日休漁期獎勵金核發作業要點」規定,其指定性休漁指定期間必須在港內連續停航60日以上。因此,在漁民連續兩個月不能出海作業之考量下,並參考大陸伏季休漁之實施月份大致為6至8月份,分析2002年沿近海漁業各作業漁法別之各月生產量。由本研究可知,以7月及8月份所佔的比例為同年其他月份較低者,故本研究將模擬國內實施7月份與8月份指定性休漁對台灣漁業部門之衝擊,並推估在維持漁民福利水準不變之下實施指定性休漁後生產者剩餘變動之補償變量,作為漁政單位未來為維持漁民福利水準不變下實施指定性休漁獎勵總金額擬定之依據。 實證結果顯示,就沿近海漁業部門而言, 2005年完全取消用油優惠,其產量預計將減少0.97%,淨產值減少6.23%。此外,相較於自願性休漁政策之模擬,結果顯示指定性休漁下沿近海漁業產量減產幅度及作業漁船投入減少幅度分別達5.72%及9.23%,均較自願性休漁之衝擊為大,可知未來指定性休漁之實施將可對漁獲努力量之控制有較高的成效。整體而言,指定性休漁之實施將使沿近海漁業產量相對於2004年用油優惠減半下減少5.72%,生產者剩餘更減少8.43%之巨幅。本研究建議未來可將用油優惠減半所結餘之經費轉至辦理指定性休漁,以支應漁民生產者剩餘之減少,維持漁民福利水準不變,除可使漁民回補漁撈作業損失亦可使沿近海漁業資源永續利用。
Taiwan had become the 144th member of the WTO since 2002 and had committed to follow the agreement on trade liberalization. Since the fishery fuel tax exemption policy in Taiwan is against the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures under WTO agreement, the fishery sector in Taiwan has faced the impact of eliminating the policy. In addition, in order to conserve the fish resource, the government has implemented a program to reward the fishing vessels which had fulfilled the requirement to fish 100 days at least and had suspended their fishing activities at least 120 days voluntarily or 60 days in a row mandatorily started from Sep. 1, 2002 to Aug. 31, 2003. Based on the average wage cost of various tonnage class fishing vessels in 2002, this study shows that the annual rewards of the suspending fishing activities voluntarily are only enough to cover 18 days, 3 days, and 2 days of the fishing activities under 0-10 tons, 10-50 tons, and 50-100 tons, respectively. It is clearly that there is not enough incentive to reduce fishing effort to help the biomass to recover. This study utilizes the most current dataset in 2002 to update the fisheries sector partial equilibrium model, which was established by Sun, Chang, and Chiang (1999) to evaluate the impact of eliminating fishery fuel tax exemption and the impact of mandatory closed fishing season during July and August in Taiwan. This study finds that if the fishery fuel tax exemption will be removed in 2005, the total production and the value of the coastal and offshore fishing industry may decrease by 0.97% and 6.23%, respectively. If the fishing season is closed during July and August, the total production and the vessel’s input of the coastal and offshore fishing industry would be decreased by 5.72% and 9.23%, respectively, which is much more seriously than the impact of suspending fishing activities voluntarily. If the mandatory closed fishing season is enforced, the producer surplus will be decreased by 8.43% and the amount of compensation is estimated about NT$12 billion to maintain the producer surplus unchanged. This amount of compensation is almost twice of the government’s expenses that reduced by eliminating the fishery fuel tax exemption. This study recommends the government should offer enough compensation to fishermen to achieve the management goal of sustainability of the fish resource.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M91350006
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/12944
Appears in Collections:[應用經濟研究所] 博碩士論文

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