|Abstract: ||本論文分別由「單字卡與單字表」 (word cards vs. word lists)、「分散反覆練習與集中練習」(spaced practice vs. massed practice)兩個角度切入，對台灣國中生單字記憶之成效做一比較，並探討台灣國中生對於單字卡和單字表的學習態度。研究對象為120 位九年級學生，將之分為：(1)單字卡-分散反覆練習組；（2）單字卡-集中練習組；（3）單字表-分散反覆練習組；（4）單字表-集中練習組四組。四組學生皆接受為期八週的120字單字教學。分別於實驗前、實驗後以及實驗後一個月進行前測、後測及延後測。 測驗成績藉由成對樣本T檢定、獨立樣本T檢定和單因子變異數等統計數據，分析比較「單字卡與單字表」、「分散反覆練習與集中練習」對於單字記憶之成效。此外，再透過筆者自行設計之三份問卷，以及個別訪談學生與教師對於單字卡和單字表的學習態度進行質化研究。量化結果顯示單字卡對英文單字記憶成效的顯著地優於單字表，分散反覆練習之成效優於集中練習，但未達顯著性的效果。質化結果顯示教師和學生對單字卡皆持正面的態度，所有的教師都表達以單字卡輔助教學的意願。大部分的學生較喜歡利用單字卡記憶單字，並列舉出單字卡與單字表的前三項優缺點。單字卡前項三優點：(1)攜帶方便；(2)可利用零碎時間複習；(3)可藉由自問自答方式自我檢測。單字卡前三項缺點：(1)翻頁不便；(2)瀏覽困難；(3)找字困難。單字表前項三優點：(1)清楚明瞭；(2)可快速瀏覽；(3)不需一再翻頁。單字表前三缺點：(1)容易看到中文，自我檢測不易；(2)體積大、易折損；(3)攜帶不方便。筆者綜合上述研究成果，提出五項解決單字卡缺點的可能方法、三項有關教學上的建議以及五項未來研究的可能方向。|
This paper primarily compared effects of word card strategy vs. word list strategy and spaced practice vs. massed practice on Taiwanese EFL junior high students’ vocabulary retention and secondarily explored their attitudes toward word card strategy vs. word list strategy. Participants included 120 ninth graders divided into four groups: card-spaced, card-massed, list-spaced, and list-massed groups and receiving identical 8-week instruction of 120 target words presented on either word cards or word lists. Vocabulary pretest, posttest, and delayed test were administered on three occasions: just before, at the end, and one month after the study. A series of paired-samples t tests, independent-samples t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to investigate effects of word card strategy vs. word list strategy and spaced practice vs. massed practice on participants’ vocabulary retention. Three Questionnaires developed by the researcher were employed to explore participants’ attitudes toward word cards vs. word lists. Moreover, individual interview was adopted to further probe students’ and English teachers’ attitudes toward these two strategies. Results of statistical analyses of scores on three vocabulary tests suggested that word cards strategy yielded significantly better performance on vocabulary retention than word list strategy whereas spaced practice led to better but non-significant effects on vocabulary retention than massed practice. Results derived from individual interview indicated that students as well as teachers had positive attitudes toward word cards. For example, the majority of word-card group preferred word card strategy rather than word list strategy to facilitate their vocabulary retention. Likewise, all teachers revealed their intention to introduce word card strategy to students. Furthermore, data collected from questionnaires illustrated the top 3 advantages and disadvantage of word cards vs. word lists. Top 3 word-card advantages recognized by most students were as follows: (a) Being convenient to carry, (b) Reviewing in spare time, and (c) Self-examining by retrieving while Top 3 word-card disadvantages: (a) Inconvenient to turn cards, (b) Hard to skim, and (c) Hard to look for words. On the other hand, top 3 word-list advantages acknowledged by most students ranked as: (a) Clear, (b) Skimming quickly, and (c) Not turning cards again and again whereas top 3 word-list disadvantages: (a) Hard to retrieve because the English word and the Chinese equivalent are shown simultaneously, (b) Big and easy to be broken, and (c) Inconvenient to carry. Based on the overall results of the current study, five possible solutions for word-card disadvantages, three educational implications and five future studies were recommended.