|Abstract: ||摘要:在黑水溝與雲彰隆起之天然屏障下，澎湖水域形成特有之海洋生態系。97年2月8日起澎湖海域因寒潮入侵陸續發現死亡魚類，表水溫13℃上下，各島嶼四周海灘布滿了魚屍，是澎湖幾十年來最嚴重的一次災害，此一現象應是低溫、低鹽、高混濁度大陸沿岸水入侵有以致之，而且從1月底開始至2月底，持續時間頗長，所以高混濁度之低溫沿岸水可能掩埋珊瑚礁之共生藻，也足以使冷血動物的珊瑚礁區水生動物死亡，即使洄游性魚類也將因臺灣灘太淺，冷水範圍太大，無法逃避而受難。據估計沿近海漁業生物的損失可達70公噸以上，漁業經濟損失亦有3.5億元以上，2008年3月間業已整合國內專家學者探討其成因及對海洋生態的衝擊與因應之道。有鑑於寒害對海洋生物資源與生態的衝擊非短期可調查清楚，並研擬因應之道，故本計畫擬再次邀請原有團隊-中央研究院、臺灣海洋大學、台灣大學及澎湖科技大學等海洋生物資源等專家學者共同持續探討與比對澎湖寒害後之環境因子及基礎生產力、澎湖海域漁業資源現況及澎湖海域寒害預警通報系統之建置與因應措施之研擬。主要工作要項如下: (1)環境因子、基礎生產力調查與冷水入侵預警模式之建立：透過衛星水溫水色資訊系統，提供澎湖海域海域全年月別時序列遙測環境因子(水溫與葉綠素濃度或基礎生產力)與仔稚魚之調查結果，以供澎湖漁業寒害後續調查與影響評估之參考。 另一方面，收集歷次反聖嬰年期間澎湖週邊水域之大陸沿岸水時空分布，分析2008年澎湖內灣、週邊水域及雲彰隆起海域之遙測衛星水溫及風向、風速資料間之關聯性，以類似法或數理模式建立大陸沿岸水入侵澎湖水域之預警模式。 (2)潮間帶生物資源調查： 1.對澎湖特定海域潮間帶出現之生物具體了解。 2.比照過去調查結果，了解潮間帶生物受1、2月份寒害後生物相之改變。 3.可作為棲地環境受寒害後對生物所造成影響之探討。 4.可作為基礎生產力大的潮間帶生態環境受到改變後對未來漁業資源影響之分析依據 (3)大型藻類資源調查：完成監測與調查報告，借由藻類資源的消長與產量, 予以評估澎湖寒害後, 因魚類及無脊椎動物的大量暴斃, 所可能引起藻類消長上的非正常性變化, 或因寒害導致現有經濟藻類的欠收及來年的變化。協助建立澎湖未來在經濟性藻類養殖的架構，利用澎湖現有大型海藻資源，提升藻類生質量來改善經濟。 (4)珊瑚資源調查：持續針對澎湖海域珊瑚群聚作一次全面性的調查，以了解澎湖海域珊瑚群聚的現況，評估寒害對珊瑚群聚及生態功能的影響，以及後續珊瑚礁生態系的回復力，依據此調查結果擬定適當的珊瑚礁保育及復育措施。 (5)無脊椎動物資源調查： 1.完成澎湖海域無脊椎動物（包括甲殼類、軟體動物與棘皮動物等）種類、數量豐富度與分佈現況調查。 2.完成寒災後澎湖無脊椎動物的復原情形評估。 3.完成澎湖海域低溫寒害的敏感區域與物種評估。 4.提供總計畫在無脊椎動物部分的成果，以利總體整合分析。 5.可供未來相關單位在管理、復育與資源利用的參考。 (6)魚類及漁業資源調查： a.魚類資源調查: 1.了解澎湖海域珊瑚礁魚類全劇的回復力。 2.藉由魚類族群的消長，予以評估因寒害後所導致來年的變化。 3.整理過去漁獲資料，探討及比較寒災前後經高濟價值魚類的效應變化，以作為未來再遭遇寒災的因應策略與參考。 b.漁業資源調查：了解沿近海一支釣、刺網、延繩釣及定置網漁業的產量變動，並藉由魚類資源與經濟魚種的消長，予以評估因寒害後所導致來年的變化。|
Abstract: In February, 2008, massive marine fishes were killed due to the passage of cold front at northern Penghu Island. The bodies of dead fish spread out on coastlines and beaches of many islets and the incidence became the most serious event in Penghu over the last few decades. The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data in the winters of 1996-2008 were used to examine the exceptional intrusion of China Coastal Current into the Taiwan Strait. The monthly SST differences in January and February 2008 were about 5°C higher and 7°C lower than those of the 12-year average, respectively. The satellite data showed that the China Coastal Current intruded from the north of Chang-Yuen Ridge into the waters surrounding the Peng-Hu Islands, while wind speed of more than 6.7 m/s was lasting for 30 days in the same period. The exceptional intrusion resulted in the minimum SST of 12.6°C on 16 February, 7.8°C lower than the 12-year average of February (20.4°C). The higher SST (>18°C) appeared after 21 February, an indication of the northward recession of the cold water. It was emphasized that the China Coastal Current intruded to as far south as the water around Peng-Hu Islands from 15 to 21 February. Our monitoring results on the part of coral fishes showed that the worst areas were all in northern main island of Penghu whereas the damages in southern part of waters were quite slight. In southern part, there is a cut line along the islets of Tung-Yu-Ping and Shi-Yu-Ping. The northern part of this line suffered some minor damages while southern waters suffered almost no damage at all. Till present, this disaster has been one year long. It is worthwhile to investigate it again now to see how the reef fish community and population have been recovered and their recruitment status.Thus this study was tried to invite the experts of fishery environment, fishery resources and ecology for investigating the fishery resouces as the exceptional cold water intrusion happened one year later. The major items of this project included the investigation of marine environement and primary production, the biomes of intertidal zone and fishery resouces (i.e. invertrate and fishes) in the coastal waters of Peng-Hu. The content and method was similar to that of 2008 investigation which is following: 1. to choose various habitats alone the intertidal zones or coastal waters of Penghu as the sampling areas. 2. To make the species investigation in the marine environment zones selected. 3. To discuss the relationship between biota and habitats. 4. To compare and analyze the change of biotic community after the damage of cold current. 5. To discuss the effect of damage of organism brought by cold current on fishery resource. This study chooses Wukan, Longmen, Hejie, northern part of Houliao, and northern part of Jibei where were investigated after cold current last year as the major sampling areas for this year. The investigation is planned to make monthly from April to November. The purpose is to investigate fish, invertebrate, and algae appeared in various intertidal zones and coastal waters. The data will be analyzed to get the number of species. The richness will be analyzed by Margalef's Index, Dm. The dominance and evenness will be analyzed by Pielou's evenness Index, J. The diversity will be analyzed by Simpson's Index, λ. The similarity will be analyzed by Jaccard's Index, Jc. Performance Expectation: 1.To monitor the marine environment including the sea surface temperature and chl-a pigment concentration by using the remote sensing and in field nar-real time system. 2.To fully understand the species appearance at certain intertidal zone. 3.Compared with last year, we can find the changes of biota after the cold current occurred in January and February, 2008. 4.To discuss the effects of habitat post cold current on organism. 5.The result can be the reference to the effect of intertidal zone with mass productivity after environmentally changed on fishery resource in the future. 6.Understand seasonal variation and the resilience of inveterate, algae and reef fish community. 7.Based on the population fluctuation data, to access the population and community change of reef fishes and commercial fisheries. 8.Try to explore the economic effect before and after the massive kill in order to provide the background data for the mitigation plan when this kind of disaster happens again in the future. 9.Through statistical analysis, we hope to understand how to do the restoration, monitoring and mitigation in the future if this massive kill happened again.