|Abstract: ||摘要：鉛是生物體內非必須的物質，在週期表上屬於第IVA 族的元素，普遍的存在於 地殼、岩石、土壤及水中。重金屬對環境的污染是全球重要的問題，水域環境中的鉛 主要是由於人為的活動如採礦、精鍊礦物、煤礦燃燒、水泥工廠以及汽油、電池及油 漆的使用而進入水域系統。由於人類的活動，鉛的釋出量約為自然作用的300～400倍， 鉛大部分會沈積在河流、河口及沿岸區域之底泥中，使得底泥的鉛遠高於水體中的鉛 濃度。然而更重要是，鉛會對水生生物造成毒性影響。 本計畫於第一年及第二年的研究中已瞭解鉛會於生物的組織中累積，並隨著鹽 度的變動造成生物死亡、影響呼吸（攜氧蛋白生成及對其氧親和力之影響、血液酸鹼 平衡及滲透壓之變化）及代謝（cortisol、catecholamine、葡萄糖及乳酸）等生理機能。 因此本研究將繼續以烏魚、斑節蝦及牡蠣作為實驗動物，研究其暴露在不同鹽度環境 及鉛濃度下，對其非特異性免疫反應之影響，以及利用RNA分示法瞭解烏魚、斑節蝦 及牡蠣在鉛環境及不同鹽度下的基因表現，並對其組織進行切片分別以光學顯微鏡及 電子顯微鏡進行組織病理之觀察研究。|
Abstract:Lead is a non-essential metal for life and is a group IVA element in the periodic table, is a naturally occurring metal present in the earth』s crust, rock, soil and water. Toxic heavy metal contamination of the environment is a significant world-wild problem. Lead enters aquatic environments by a number of pathways. Most of the waterborne lead derivers from human activities such as mining and smelting, coal burning, cement manufacturing, and use in gasoline, batteries and paint. For artificial activity, the amount of lead enter to the natural environment was over 300~400 times than nature force. Furthermore, the lead always deposits at the sediments of the river, estuaries and coastal area, and the concentration of lead in sediment was hundred times than waterborne. The more important of lead is the poison in aquatic animals. This project has been realized that the lead will accumulated at tissue, caused the fish died and effect the respiratory (oxygen affinity, ion change, acid-base balance) and metabolism (cortisol, catecholamine, glucose and lactate) by different salinity during the first and second year. This research will continue to study at the lead toxicity to mullet (Mugil cephalus), kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) at different salinities. We will study at the non-specific immune responses detect by the complement and lysozyme activity, pheonloxidase, respiratory burst, superoxidase, H2O2, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, phagocytosis and clearance efficiency. We also still to study the gene regulation and histopathologic changes that the aquatic animals exposure at different salinities and lead environment.