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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/10795

Title: 多媒體影片不同呈現模式對大專學生英文理解力影響及與字彙知識深度關聯性之研究
The Study of Multimedia Presentation Mode's Impact on Efl Learners' Comprehension and Relationship with Efl Learners' Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge
Authors: 林綠芳
Contributors: NTOU:Foreign Language Teaching and Research Center
國立臺灣海洋大學:外語教學研究中心
Keywords: 多媒體學習認知理論;影片多媒體;英語文教學;英文字彙知識深度;多媒體影片呈現模式
Cognitive theory of multimedia learning;depth of vocabulary knowledge;English instruction;multimedia presentation mode;Video
Date: 2009-08
Issue Date: 2011-06-28T07:50:52Z
Abstract: 摘要:先前英語教學研究大多是各別就閱讀與聽力理解力進行研究,並分別提出提升學 習者閱讀及聽力理解力的教學建議,但這些研究並未同時考量學習者的英文閱讀及聽力 能力,而且,這些英語教學研究大多著重於文字型態的教本理解(the comprehension of verbal text)。此外,以往有關影片多媒體英語教學的研究,極少研究以認知理解的觀點 做分析探討,甚至於有關應用影片於教學上成效的研究出現正反兩面的看法。然而在多 媒體教學研究,對於學習者心理認知的研究有相當的斬獲。Mayer 為主的研究團隊在 這二十年來進行許多實證研究,並提出一套多媒體學習的認知理論(a cognitive theory of multimedia learning),其理論驗證了在教材加上非文字圖片或動畫時,學習者更能深層 了解教材內容,Mayer and Moreno (1999, 2002)也更進一步提出七項多媒體教材設計原 則。但這些結論是建立於以說英語為母語的大學生為研究對象及以人工繪製動畫 (animation)的實驗材料,在第二外語學習領域中,Mayer 並沒有涉及太多。所以,本計 畫將以Mayer 的多媒體學習認知理論為基礎,運用另一種非文字動畫教材(video),也就 是實景拍攝真人真事新聞短片,驗證Mayer 的三項多媒體教材設計原則,並探討英外語 學習者閱讀、聽力及影像等多元性的理解力,以改善過去只針對文字閱讀或聽力等單項 理解力研究的不足,進而提升英文學習者多元性的理解力,同時也更進一步將文字與非 文字型態的影片教材(video materials)融入於英語教學課程中,並探討學習者影片文字與 非文字理解策略的使用情況及深入探究影片對學習者英文高階層面的理解力提升之成 效。因目前甚少研究投注於這個領域,極少有文獻可供參考,故本研究規劃為兩年期跨 領域研究計畫,希望經由有系統規劃的研究,在整合認知心理學與多媒體英語教學的知 識領域上有所貢獻。 為填補上述所提及的先前研究的缺失,本研究者針對此領域已初步著手進行多媒 體英語影片對一般學習者、男女學習者、不同學院、英語能力不同學習者的影片理解策 略之使用情況進行分析與歸類(NSC 96-2411-H-019-004),(NSC 97-2410-H-019-018)。目 前,研究結果已顯示出上述不同背景的學習者在某些認知策略使用有明顯的差異,這些 差異使我們了解到影片對不同背景的學習者造成理解認知的差異。先前計畫也發現學習 者會應用影片的文字與非文字訊息來理解內容,也透過聽視覺接收訊息,但相較於藉由 閱讀與聽的管道學習的文字教材,多媒體英語教材中的影像(video)的效益又何在?這 些答案目前尚無法在上一個計畫全然獲得了解,Mayer 也認為多媒體的使用可促進第二 外語學習,只是相關的實證研究十分有限。因此,本研究者針對這些問題提出一個兩年 期的計畫,其研究貢獻更可促成這兩個領域的專業知識具有相輔相成的效果。 第一年計畫的研究重點是: (1)比較四種不同呈現模式的多媒體影片教材對英文學 習者的理解力影響。本研究所使用的理解力測驗包括影片內容全文理解(text comprehension test),影片知識移轉解決影片相關問題(problem solving transfer test)及從上 下文猜測字義(lexical inferencing)等。大約200 位選修英文相關課程的英文能力中等的大 學生參加本次研究。本計畫將進行同一影片教材內容編製成四種不同呈現模式的教材實 施分組觀看。首先將每組研究對象英文能力無顯著差異下分成四組進行觀看,組別包含: (1)僅有字幕, (2)含影像及字幕, (3)含影像及旁白和(4)含影像、旁白及字幕,本研究將選 擇三部新聞影片,當一組看完一部影片時就完成三項理解力測驗,接著進行影片理解困 難的自我陳述,並將這些測驗資料進行ANOVA 分析,而影片理解困難的自我陳述之資料則進行質性分析。研究結果將可了解: (1) 四組研究對象對不同呈現模式的多媒體教 材的全文理解是否有顯著差異;(2) 四組研究對象對不同呈現模式的多媒體教材內容加 以應用並解決與影片相關的問題是否有顯著差異;(3) 四組研究對象對不同呈現模式的 多媒體教材的英文字義推測是否有顯著差異;(4) 四組研究對象對不同呈現模式的多媒 體教材的理解困難之處。最後,根據研究結果提出對提升英外語學習者最佳的影片呈現 模式之建議。 第二年計畫的研究重點是: 學習者英文字彙深度知識與影片不同呈現模式及理 解力的關聯性研究。本研究將包括大約150 位修大一英文課程的大學生。首先,實施研 究對象英文字彙深度知識的測驗並依知識深度的不同分成兩大組(字彙知識精熟與較不 精熟),接著,將此兩大組研究對象各再分成三組,用相同影片教材內容以三種不同呈 現模式實施分組觀看,各組學生進行觀看與第一年計畫相同的三部新聞影片。三組不同 呈現模式的組別包含: (1)含影像及字幕, (2)含影像及旁白和(3)含影像、旁白及字幕,每 一組看完一部影片就完成三項與第一年計畫相同的理解力測驗,這些測驗資料將進行 ANOVA 統計法分析。從分析結果將可了解: (1) 英文學習者的英文字彙深度與全文理 解的關聯性分析;(2) 英文學習者的英文字彙深度與三組不同多媒體教材呈現模式及全 文理解的關聯性分析;(3) 英文學習者的英文字彙深度與影片知識移轉的關聯性分析; (4) 英文學習者的英文字彙深度與三組不同多媒體教材呈現模式及影片知識移轉的關聯 性分析;(5) 英文學習者的英文字彙深度與影片中英文字義推測的關聯性分析;(6) 英 文學習者的英文字彙深度與三組不同多媒體教材呈現模式及影片中英文字義推測的關 聯性分析。最後,根據分析結果,提出應用於提升英文字彙知識深度不同的學習者英語 理解力的多媒體教材呈現模式之建議。
abstract:Most previous English instruction research separately studied reading and listening comprehension of the verbal text and proposed suggestions to facilitate English learners’ reading and listening comprehension respectively. Little multimedia comprehension research focused on how the leaner applied nonverbal information in multimedia materials to comprehend the verbal text. Moreover, the results of some multimedia research concerning the teaching effects were contradictory. In the field of multimedia learning, there are abundant studies discussing learners’ cognitive processes. For the past decade, Mayer, Mereno and their colleagues have been examining the conditions under which multimedia presentation modes may promote learners understanding. Mayer and Mereno (2002) summarized the fruits of their research, namely a cognitive theory of multimedia learning and a collection of seven research-based principles for the design of multimedia presentation involving animation. However, the participants in their research are native English speakers, the research by them is not related much to second/foreign language learning, and the research material is artificial animation but not authentic video. Thus, the researcher proposes a two-year project focusing on Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning and further examining the effects of Mayer’s three research-based principles for the design of multimedia presentation in terms of video. This two-year project is an interdisciplinary research to fill the gaps across the fields of cognitive psychology, English instruction and multimedia education. The results of this project contribute to set up a cognitive model of multimedia second language learning. The purpose of the first-year study is to investigate the effects of multimedia material presentation mode (video/narration/text) on the learner’s constructive learning performance. The study compares the impacts of four types of multimedia presentation modes on learners’ comprehension by understanding the content in video, transferring information in video to solve new problems and deriving the meanings of words from context. The participants are 200 undergraduate university students with intermediate English ability. The researcher randomly assigns them to the four conditions: (a) video with concurrent on-screen text, (b) video with concurrent narration, (c) video with concurrent narration and on-screen text, and (d) narration and on-screen text. The participants take three follow-up tests after the presentation ends. The participants view three clips in total, one clip per week. After the participants view all videos and finish the tests, each participant writes a self-report about his/her difficulties in understanding video in terms of the assigned multimedia presentation mode he/she views. The collected test data is conducted with ANOVA. The self-reports are analyzed qualitatively. The results of this study help us understand whether there are significant differences between four multimedia presentation modes in text comprehension,transferring and lexical inferencing and EFL learners’ difficulties in comprehending the texts presented in the four multimedia presentation modes. The purpose of the second-year study is to examine the relationships between EFL learners’ DVK and multimedia presentation modes and success of comprehension. This study includes 150 undergraduate university students. For the second-year study, the video materials and follow-up tests are identical to those used in the first-year study. The Word-Associate Test (WAT) by Read (1993, 2000) is added to measure the participants’ depth of vocabulary knowledge. In this study, the participants are divided into two groups (lexically skilled and lexically less skilled) according to the results of the Word-Associate Test. The two groups of participants are randomly assigned the following three presentation conditions: (a) video with concurrent on-screen text (Group VT), (b) video with concurrent narration (Group VN), and (c) video with concurrent narration and on-screen text (Group VNT). The participants take three follow-up tests after the presentation ends. The participants view three clips in total, one clip per week. The collected test data is conducted with ANOVA. The results of this study can help us understand: (1) the relationship between DVK and successful text comprehension, (2). the relationship between DVK and multimedia presentation mode and successful text comprehension, (3) the relationship between DVK and successful transferring, (4) the relationship between DVK and multimedia presentation mode and successful transferring, (5) the relationship between DVK and successful lexical inferencing, and (6) the relationship between DVK and multimedia presentation mode and successful lexical inferencing. Finally, this study recommends the optimal multimedia presentation mode for fostering English learners with different depth of vocabulary knowledge’ second language comprehension.
Relation: NSC98-2410-H019-012
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/10795
Appears in Collections:[外語教學研究中心] 研究計畫

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