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Title: 貨櫃船與散裝船進港等候定價模式下最佳階梯式差別費率以及到港時刻分散效果之研究
The Research of the Optimal Step Toll Scheme and Port Arrival Time Decentralization Effects under the Port Queuing Pricing Model for Container Ships and Bulk Carriers
Authors: 賴禎秀
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Merchant Marine
Keywords: 排隊等候;階梯式差別費率;均衡成本;貨櫃船;散裝船
Queuing;the step toll scheme;equilibrium cost;container ship;bulk carrier
Date: 2009-08
Issue Date: 2011-06-28T07:28:24Z
Abstract: 摘要:商船抵達裝卸貨目的港之際,若遇港內作業船舶佔滿所有碼頭,無船 席可供使用,港口管制單位會指示其先停泊在外港錨區排隊等候,待港內 船席一有空位,再由引水人帶領商船進港靠泊,進行裝卸作業。為紓解商 船進港前排隊等候之現象,讓碼頭船席使用更具經濟效益,計畫主持人已 發表多篇相關論文,將商船因排隊等候進港而產生的所有衍生成本模式 化,據此推導出紓解商船排隊等候進港現象之單階段與多階段收費架構。 在已發表的船舶進港等候定價之系列論文中,乃是將需方(航商)之船 舶排隊等候時間成本視為社會之總成本,故收費階段數愈多,則社會總成 本之損失將愈少。但是該結論並未考慮供方(港務局)在執行收費時必須付 出之作業成本,在收費實務上,作業成本應是明顯存在的供方成本,且可 能隨著收費階段數的增減而產生變化。由於在供需雙方總成本最小的情況 下,才是社會最佳化之收費方式,故在滿足社會最佳化的前提下,推導出 最佳收費階段數的階梯式差別費率,不僅可使船舶進港等候定價模式之理 論基礎更加完整,且可提高其在收費實務上之可行性。另外,本研究根據 均衡成本守恆的原則,探討最佳階梯式差別費率實施後,船舶到達外港錨 區的分散效果以及到達錨區時刻的變動軌跡。 由於貨櫃船以及散裝船的營運方式、載貨種類與作業成本差異甚大, 上述研究內容執行時有必要分開討論。本研究計畫將分兩年進行,第一年 與第二年的研究對象分別為貨櫃船與散裝船,針對進港等候定價模式下最 佳階梯式差別費率以及船舶到港分散效果,進行理論模式推導與數值分析。
Abstract:If the port berth is fulfilled, the arrived ship will be forced to wait at the general anchorage. Once any ship leaves the berth, the pilot will guide a waiting ship to the vacant berth for loading/unloading. In order to relieve the queuing condition at the general anchorage and make the use of berth become more efficient, Prof. Laih has published some articles to solve this problem. These articles built the ship’s cost function due to queuing at the general anchorage, and derived the single- and multi-step tolls to decrease all ships’ queuing times. In all published articles concerning to the port queuing pricing policy, all queuing times to the demand side of all ships are considered as the total social cost. Therefore the loss of total social cost will be decreased when the number of pricing steps of the step toll scheme becomes more. But this conclusion is regardless of the operation cost of implementing the toll scheme to the supply side of port authority. In fact, the operation cost to the supply side is evidently existent, and varied with the number of pricing steps of the step toll scheme. Because minimization of the total costs for the demand and supply sides leads to the social optimum, the optimal step toll scheme, which is derived according to the principle of social optimum, not only makes the theoretical model of the port queuing pricing more complete, but also increases the feasibility of implementing the port queuing pricing policy in practice. Moreover, based on the permanent equilibrium cost principle, this project will show the dispersion in all ships’ arrival rates and the changed tracks of all ships’ arrival times at the destination port when the optimal step toll scheme is put into practice. Because the ways of management, types of goods and operating cost to the container ship and bulk carrier are quite different in the marine market, this project will derive the optimal step toll scheme and show the effect of optimal step toll on all ships’ arrival time decentralization for the container ship in the first year, and for the bulk carrier in the second year.
Relation: NSC98-2410-H019-014
Appears in Collections:[Department of Merchant Marine] Research Reports

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