National Taiwan Ocean University Institutional Repository:Item 987654321/10137
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题名: 海運託運人選擇貨運服務方式之行為研究
A Study on the Marine Shipper's Choice Behavior in Cargo Delivery Services
作者: 賴禎秀
贡献者: NTOU:Department of Merchant Marine
國立臺灣海洋大學:商船學系
日期: 2003-08
上传时间: 2011-06-28T07:28:20Z
摘要: 摘要:現階段海運運送人(航商)所提供之運送服務方式不外乎:直接運抵、中途靠泊與中途轉運等三種。海運託運人通常以成本最小化之原則來選擇其貨物起迄點間的運送服務方式。本研究首先以效用函數建構上述三種不同運送服務方式下之貨運時間價值評估模式,基於海運託運人效用最大的原則,推導出運送過程中相關時間之價值。其次建立海運託運人在上述三種不同運送方式下之運輸成本模式,以總成本最小化之目標,探討海運託運人對該三種運送方式之選擇行為。此外,更針對三種不同貨運服務方式進一步推導得出航行之節省時間價值、等候運送過程之節省時間價值與轉運港口停留之節省時間價值等評估準則與組成要素。而託運人選擇不同貨運服務方式時的臨界條件為:當不同貨運方式所增加的金錢成本小於所節省的時間成本時,表示託運人選擇較快速之貨運方式所增加的金錢成本小於可節省之時間成本,故選擇較快速之貨運方式可以為託運人節省更多的時間成本。範例分析結果顯示當運送的節省時間價值相對較低之所有商品,其運輸過程中所發生之等候時間價值、運送時間價值、靠泊時間價值與轉運時間價值等皆相對較低。以單位節省時間價值之高低而言,鋼鐵製品最高,其次分別為塑膠及製品、有機化學品、鋼鐵等,最低為水泥及石料製品。本研究結果顯示,若海運託運人僅考量運費成本最低之貨運方式,將造成更多時間成本的負擔與損失,故海運託運人必須因應市場狀況研擬不同貨運服務方式,才可提升海運託運人在市場上之競爭優勢。
Abstract:The existing marine cargo delivery services include direct delivery, stopover delivery and transfer delivery. Generally speaking, voyage cost minimization is the principle for the marine shipper to choose a certain kind of cargo delivery service. In this study we use utility function to establish an evaluation model in order to measure value of cargo delivery time under the condition of three kinds of cargo delivery service are provided. Based on the utility maximization principle to the shipper, the related time values in cargo delivery services will be obtained. In addition, we establish three different cost models for the three cargo delivery services. The shipper??s choice behavior in cargo delivery services will be discussed based on cost minimization principle. In addition to the whole cargo delivery, the evaluation guideline and component factors of the saved time value of the voyage, waiting delivery process and transfer delivery stay are further introduced toward three cargo delivery services. However, the unit saved time value of the mentioned three transport methods is the same. The main difference lies on the duration of the whole delivery process. In addition, the marginal condition for the marine shipper??s choosing different cargo delivery services is as follows: where the money cost increasing from different cargo services less than the time cost saving therefrom, that indicates the money cost increasing from faster direct delivery or stopover delivery chosen by marine shippers will less than possible timesaving costs. As such, choosing faster cargo services may save more time cost for marine shippers and therefore the marine shippers will choose direct delivery or stopover delivery. In result, the analysis of the samples indicates that all products, with relatively lower time-saving values in delivery, whose time-waiting value, shipment time value, stopover time value and transferring time value rising from the process of transportation will be relatively lower as well. In terms of the degree of unit timesaving value, the steel products rank the highest, followed by plastic and products, organic chemicals, steels and the lowest concrete/stone products. This research suggests that, if marine shippers merely consider the shipment means with the lowest transportation cost, which will result in more burdens and damages in time cost. As such, the marine shippers should adopt different cargo services models in response to market conditions as to enhance the competitive superiority of the marine shippers in the market.
關聯: NSC92-2415-H019-003-SSS
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/10137
显示于类别:[商船學系] 研究計畫

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