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A Study on Berth Congestion Pricing and Carrier Behavior Model
Liner;Container ship;Berth;Congestion toll;Maritime economics
|Issue Date: ||2011-06-28T07:28:20Z
Abstract:When a regular container ship departs from a harbor and moves on to the next appointed berth, the shipmaster will notify the marine company the time of arrival with a telegraphic message. This procedure is for the convenience of the company to carry out the necessary dispatch steps. If the containership arrives at the port during congestion, the harbor officers will guide it to wait at general anchorage. When a vacancy at the berth becomes available, a pilot will shepherd it to the berth where it unloads and loads. This situation is very similar to the traffic congestion on the road. At the road bottleneck, every car has to queue before entering the road bottleneck. From an economic point of view, we can minimize the queuing by collecting congestion tolls. Hence, if the same applies to the arrival of containerships at a harbor, a certain degree of effectiveness should be achieved. This paper will derive a framework of collecting congestion tolls that applies to all general congested commercial harbors. The content includes the optimal time-varying toll and the optimal step toll schemes. We will then advice related offices this strategy. Port congestion pricing leads to efficient use of berth especially during the crowded season. The ship owner may not consider anchoring their ships at other ports that do not implement the port congestion pricing because of the two reasons. The first is the port congestion pricing reduces ships' waiting time at general anchorage. The second is the ship may not be willing to anchor other ports for some inconvenience reasons, e.g., the voyage distance to other ports may be too long. Therefore, most of externalities cannot be internalized in free competition marine market. Port congestion pricing seems as much important as road congestion pricing.
|Appears in Collections:||[商船學系] 研究計畫|
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