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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/10136

Title: 船席擁擠收費與航商行為模式之研究
A Study on Berth Congestion Pricing and Carrier Behavior Model
Authors: 賴禎秀
Contributors: 國立臺灣海洋大學:商船學系
Keywords: 定期;貨櫃船;船席;擁擠收費;海運經濟
Liner;Container ship;Berth;Congestion toll;Maritime economics
Date: 2002-08
Issue Date: 2011-06-28T07:28:20Z
Abstract: 摘要:定期貨櫃船從港口出發,往下一個預定停靠的港口前進時,船長會先以電報通知船公司預期到達下一個停靠港的時間,以便公司進行陸上以及港口作業調度。經過海上航行過程之後,貨櫃船在抵達目的港之前,若是港口處於擁擠狀態,港口會指引貨櫃船先停在外港錨區,等候港內船席空缺,再經由引水人帶領進港,進行貨櫃裝卸。這種狀況,與陸地上的瓶頸路口極為相似,陸地上的瓶頸路口,所有車輛都必須在瓶頸路口前排隊等候,然後才能進入瓶頸路口。在陸地上,我們可以利用擁擠收費的方法來減低排隊等候的狀況,因此,若是將擁擠收費理論套用在船舶靠港問題上,應有一定的成效。本文將推導出適用於一般商港擁擠的擁擠收費架構,其內容包括無擁擠最佳收費與階梯式擁擠收費結構,探討出實施擁擠收費的時機及收費方式與金額,以及實施擁擠收費制度後航商行為的改變,並對相關單位提出建議。
Abstract:When a regular container ship departs from a harbor and moves on to the next appointed berth, the shipmaster will notify the marine company the time of arrival with a telegraphic message. This procedure is for the convenience of the company to carry out the necessary dispatch steps. If the containership arrives at the port during congestion, the harbor officers will guide it to wait at general anchorage. When a vacancy at the berth becomes available, a pilot will shepherd it to the berth where it unloads and loads. This situation is very similar to the traffic congestion on the road. At the road bottleneck, every car has to queue before entering the road bottleneck. From an economic point of view, we can minimize the queuing by collecting congestion tolls. Hence, if the same applies to the arrival of containerships at a harbor, a certain degree of effectiveness should be achieved. This paper will derive a framework of collecting congestion tolls that applies to all general congested commercial harbors. The content includes the optimal time-varying toll and the optimal step toll schemes. We will then advice related offices this strategy. Port congestion pricing leads to efficient use of berth especially during the crowded season. The ship owner may not consider anchoring their ships at other ports that do not implement the port congestion pricing because of the two reasons. The first is the port congestion pricing reduces ships' waiting time at general anchorage. The second is the ship may not be willing to anchor other ports for some inconvenience reasons, e.g., the voyage distance to other ports may be too long. Therefore, most of externalities cannot be internalized in free competition marine market. Port congestion pricing seems as much important as road congestion pricing.
Relation: NSC91-2415-H019-001
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/10136
Appears in Collections:[商船學系] 研究計畫

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