|Abstract: ||摘要:近二十年來,隨國際貿易之蓬勃發展,海上運輸之船舶數量亦大幅增加,而且船舶的大型化及高速化,致使碰撞或擱淺等海難事件不斷發生。由於貨載的危險性,不但造成生命財產的嚴重損失,更對於沿海國的海洋環境構成莫大的威脅。許多國家乃紛紛在其主要港口建立船舶交通管理系統(VTS),主要目的在於促進航行安全及效率,並保護海洋環境。 船舶交通管理系統係由岸上主管機關整合各類的人員、船舶、操作程序、設備及法規,在特定水域內實施海上交通管理,利用資訊交換及雷達監控,提供船舶航行訊息及協助,並對危險航行提出警告與建議。傳統上,海上航行安全係依靠船長對於船舶本身的航行管理,由船長負航行上之責任。然而,VTS的建立及應用,使船長與岸上主管機關共同管理船舶航行,主管機關對船舶傳遞的指示與建議乃引起法律層面之責任歸屬問題。 我國目前正積極在各國際港口推展VTS,基隆港已建立完成,即將實施,高雄及台中兩港亦已完成規劃。未來VTS在運作時,勢必將因責任問題,而面臨許多嶄新且複雜的國際海事糾紛。本研究主要就現行國際海事組織(IMO)的決議案及相關國際公約對於VTS的規定加以論述,參考目前國內涉及VTS的法規,從VTS的行為開始,對於VTS各種行為態樣論述其法律性質,就VTS操作人員的故意或過失所引起的個人責任及國家責任,探討依其行為所造成損害的賠償責任。本研究建議我國各港VTS在運作之前,應先制訂海上交通安全法規,使操作人員在執行VTS任務時有所遵循之依據。|
Abstract:During the past twenty years, following the development of international trade, the number of ships with larger tonnage and higher speed for marine transportation has promptly increased. Consequently, those become the factors causing ship grounding and collision. Owing to dangerous cargo on board, the results of the accidents are usually potential danger to human life and damage to ships and cargoes, and serious threat to marine environment of coastal countries. Therefore, vessel traffic services (VTS) have been gradually established in main ports of most countries. The prime objective of VTS is to improve navigational safety and efficiency and to protect the environment. A VTS carried out by a competent authority to achieve the purpose of traffic management within a defined water area is an integrated system of personnel, ships, operational procedures, equipment, and regulations. Information exchanging and radar monitoring by VTS can provide navigational assistance to ships, and give warning and advice if navigational risk is existent. Traditionally navigational safety depended on ship management of master individual. After the establishment and application of VTS, the management on navigation has been mutually performed by both of master and shore-based VTS authority. The implementation of VTS will generally cause some aspects of legal issues, especially the legal liability when VTS operators transmit traffic information, advice or instructions to ships, which consequently influence ship safety. VTS is being established in international ports in Taiwan. Keelung VTS will start to operate next year, and Kaohsiung and Taichung VTS have completed for planning. The legal liability will emerge when VTS operating in the future, and many international maritime disputes will follow. This research expounds legal circumstances of VTS with International Conventions and Resolutions related to VTS, and analyzes national laws applying to VTS and inadequate. Furthermore, the research also discusses the personal and national liability of compensation when ship damage is caused by incorrect instructions from VTS operators. The paper suggests that a national law of marine traffic safety must be instituted before VTS operation in Taiwan. That can provide a legal position for VTS operators to fulfill their missions.