|Abstract: ||摘要:船舶安全營運與海洋環境汙染防止為國際間所重視之課題。國際海事組織(IMO)於一九九四年五月,擷取國際標準組織之ISO 9000品質保證制度之精神,通過增修一九七四年海上人命安全國際公約(SOLAS 1974),增加第九章,建立船舶安全管理制度。議定對海運不同船型、噸位之船舶於一九九八年七月一日及二００二年七月一日分兩階段實施,並予以法定管制。 海運界面對此一新管理制度,在經營管理範疇上,必須由過去之硬體導向。技術設備準則上之要求。更進一步加強軟體之導向管理,即制定並執行一套適切之安全管理系統。將品質保證觀念融入於船舶管理,從此海運經營與管理將邁向新的領域。 海運業為一多元化之企業,加上海上環境特殊,具風險性及海洋汙染防止責任等難以控制之因素。船舶安全管理制度,將循評審、稽核、認證等作業,對符合船舶安全管理章程(ISM Code)之海運業岸上管理單位簽發符合文件(Document of Compliance),對於船上,則發給安全管理證書(Shipboard Safety Management Certificate)。由於期限迫近,我海運業及其相關業界應未雨綢繆預做準備以為因應。 本研究先對於國際安全管理章程(ISM Code)之內容加以研析,參考ISO 9000品保系列之內容,並融入相關國際海事法規,提供政府主管機關制定政策及相關機構擬定方案之參考。並對船公司之組織管理及船上管理提出切合時宜之管理模式。期能全面提昇我國海運業及相關業界之安全及服務品質,並配合產業升級政策及國家總體經濟之發展,使競爭劇烈的國際海運市場中能永續經營。|
Abstract:The subject of safety management of ships and prevention of marine pollution, nowaday has become worldwide trend. Having acceptance of the ISO 9000 series of quality management and quality assurance standards, IMO (International Maritime Organization) adopted the ISM Code in Nov. 1993, Then, incorporated as SOLAS chapter IX at SOLAS conference in May, 1994. From then on, the international standard of safety management system (SMS) is formally set up. Based on the requirement of ISM Code, the shipping companies and all ships should establish systematic, document operation, and ISM Code to be effective according to ship's type by two steps from July 1,1998 and July 1,2002, respectively. Shipping company is multicomposite enterprise with various factors such as particular marine environment, unforeseen risk and liability of oil pollution, etc. SMS will be implemented through the program of assessment, auditing and certification, issuing the document of compliance for shipping company as well as safety management certificate for shipboard if both of them complying with ISM Code. Due tight forthcoming schedule, the shipping companies and concerned parties shall take countermeasure and preparedness in advance, and enabling them easily to comply with the requirement of ISM Code. In this context, we attempt to provide a workable, contemporary management model of safety management system. We also expect that through this study could help the shipping company and relevant parties to meet the requirement and to upgrade the standard of shipping industry in connection with safety management and service quality.