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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/10059

Title: WTO檢疫協定對水產品貿易衝擊與因應策略之研究
A Study of Impacts and Adjustment Strategies for the WTO SPS on Seafood Trade
Authors: 莊慶達;黃異;黃登福;張正明
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics
國立臺灣海洋大學:應用經濟研究所
Date: 2001-03
Issue Date: 2011-06-28T07:24:09Z
Publisher: 行政院農業委員會
Abstract: WTO/SPS措施所引發之國際貿易紛爭已成為WTO成立以來, 各會員國尋求貿易爭端排解之最主要案件之一, 例如歐盟禁止美國、加拿大含荷爾蒙牛肉進口、澳洲以鮭魚疫病為理由禁止加拿大鮭魚進口, 以及日本因檢疫措施禁止美國水果進口等等; 過去WTO會員國採取禁止貿易措施之國家雖多, 但多因無法適時提出科學證據而於爭端排解中敗訴, 且由於WTO各項貿易爭端案件之排解所需費時, 往往已造成控訴國之產業遭受嚴重的損失.因此, WTO各會員國乃紛紛要求檢討SPS協定內容, 以期建立更透明、更具科學證據之貿易規範; 然而由於各會員國的意見仍相當分歧, 而且目前尚無一套公正有效的科學認證模式可以廣被各會員國所接受.因此, 預料這項議題將在WTO新回合談判中引發廣泛的討論.此外, 各會員國可望在此項議題討論上, 特別強調貿易爭端排解機制的有效運作.有鑑於此, 本研究將就水產品貿易之檢疫措施與認證的重要性及其在國際貿易上的發展趨勢加以探討, 並剖析WTO各會員國目前的實施現況及其在經濟上的涵義, 最後依據前述分析結果, 研擬我國加入WTO後, 漁業及相關部門之因應策略.為達成上述目標, 本計畫之重要工作項目及實施方法包括: ( 1 )剖析WTO動植物衛生檢疫措施( SPS )協定之內容重點, 及其與水產品貿易的關係; ( 2 )收集WTO會員國中, 主要漁產品進出口國( 如日本、歐盟、加拿大……等國 )現行所採用的檢疫方法與認證制度; ( 3 )收集自1995年以來, 有關水產品貿易因食品衛生安全檢驗及動植物檢疫協定所引發之糾紛案例, 進行其與WTO/SPS相關條文關聯性的分析與探討; ( 4 )檢視目前我國有關動植物衛生檢疫法規與水產品管理制度之制定, 是否已完全符合國際規範.預期透過本研究的效益包括: ( 1 )整理出WTO動植物衛生檢疫措施( SPS )協定之重要規範, 瞭解其對我國水產品貿易的影響; ( 2 )整理出世界各主要漁產品進出口國現行的檢疫方法與認證制度, 進而比較我國的現行制度之缺失; ( 3 )瞭解WTO自1995年以來, 有關水產品因食品衛生檢驗及動植物檢疫協定所引發之貿易糾紛案例, 做為未來我國加入WTO後相關案例訴訟之參考; ( 4 )可檢視我國相關國內法的國際合法性, 進而建議我國有關水產品貿易之檢疫法規與管理制度的修正原則, 使其能更符合國際上的規範; ( 5 )根據前述研究之分析結果, 研擬出我國加入WTO後漁業及相關部門之因應策略.
The trade disputes arouse from the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ( SPS )have become main cases need to be settled among the WTO member states since it was established.For example, Europe Union prohibited beef which contain hormones import from the United States and Canada, Australia forbids the Canada Salmon import to her domestic because of fish disease problem, and Japan prohibits USA fruit import to Japan due to sanitary and safety inspection measures regulations, etc.Though trade for many member countries adopted some imports prohibit, many WTO member states lost their lawsuit cases due to insufficient scientific evidence.Besides, many of these trade dispute cases cost a lot of time for resolution, it always make serious damage to the industry of accused country.Thus, many member states request the reexamine the SPS agreement, and hope a more transparent and more scientific evidence regulations can be established.However, due to diverse standing points by each member state, and insufficient of equity and effective scientific certificate module can be accepted at this moment, it is expected that this issue will be widely discussed during the WTO new round.In addition, each member state will focus on the effective operation of dispute settlement system on these SPS related trade dispute issues.Thus, this project will study the importance of seafood sanitary and safety inspection and its certification system, and its future development trend.In addition, we will examine the implement results of each country and its economic implications.Finally, according to previous research analysis results, adjustment strategies for fishery and related sectors related to SPS agreement will be provided.To accomplish above objectives, this project will focus following major work items and implement methods: ( 1 )analyze the main contents of the SPS agreement which related to fish and fish products sector; ( 2 )collect the current sanitary and safety inspection and certificate system of world's major fish and fish products import and export countries ( eg.Japan, EC, etc. ); ( 3 )study the cases of fish and fish products trade dispute due to SPS agreement rules since 1995, and the regulations related to these cases, ( 4 )examine the current domestic law which related to SPS agreement or other seafood trade management system, compare and check whether it is in compliances to the international regulations under the WTO /SPS rules.The expected benefit through accomplish of this project includes: ( 1 )understand the WTO SPS agreement rules and realize its potential impacts on fishery sector; ( 2 )compare the current inspection and certificate system of world's major fish and fish products import and export countries, and find out the shortcoming of our current management system; ( 3 )cases study of the fish and fish products trade dispute due to the SPS agreement rules since 1995can provide valuable information for seafood trade dispute settlement references; ( 4 )the examination of current related domestic law can provide guidance for future amend suggests in order to compliance with international regulation, and necessary steps which related to the seafood sanitary and safety inspection and management system; ( 5 )according to the research results, provide suggests and adjustment strategic for fishery and related departments upon the accession to the WTO.
Relation: 90農科-1.6.5-漁-F1
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/10059
Appears in Collections:[應用經濟研究所] 研究計畫

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